 DATA MINING
Desktop Survival Guide
by Graham Williams ## Numbers

Numbers in R can be integer, double, or complex. The actual type is generally determined by R based on context and defaults. Numbers do tend to be double unless they are in some way restricted to being integers, or you wish to store http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complex_numbercomplex numbers.

 ```> typeof(1) # "double" > typeof(1.3) # "double" > typeof(1:2) # "integer" - this is a vector of two integers 1 and 2 > typeof((1:2)) # "integer" - this is the first element of the vector > typeof(2+5i) # "complex" - complex numbers have real and imaginary parts ```

The basic numeric operators include:

 ``` \verb|+| Addition \verb|-| Subtraction \verb|*| Multiplication \verb|/| Division \verb|^| Exponentiation \verb|:| Sequence \verb|%/%| Integer division \verb|%%| Remainder ```

See the documentation for Arithmetic for details:

 ```> ?Arithmetic ```

Typical numeric functions include:

 ```> 1:5 # 1 2 3 4 5 > round(1234.56) # 1235 > trunc(1234.56) # 1234 ```