Data Structures and Algorithms with Object-Oriented Design Patterns in C++

### Removing Items from a List

Objects are removed from a searchable container using the Withdraw function. Program  defines the Withdraw function for the ListAsArray class. This function takes a single argument which is a reference to the object to be removed from the container. It is the specific object instance which is removed from the container, not simply one which matches (i.e., compares equal to) the argument.

Program: ListAsArray Class Withdraw Member Function Definition

The withdraw function first needs to find the position of the item to be removed from the list. This part is identical to the main loop of the IsMember function. An exception is thrown if the list is empty, or if the object to be removed is not in the list. The number of iterations needed to find an object depends on its position. If the object to be removed is found at position i, then the search phase takes O(i) time.

Removing an object from position i of an ordered list which is stored in an array requires that all of the objects at positions i+1, i+2, ..., , be moved one position to the left. Altogether, objects need to be moved. Hence, this phase takes time.

The running time of the Withdraw function is the sum of the running times of the two phases, O(i)+ . Hence, the total running time is O(n), where is the number of items in the ordered list.

Care must be taken when using the Withdraw function. Consider the following:

```Object& object1 = *new Int (57);
Object& object2 = *new Int (57);
ListAsArray list (1);
list.Insert (object1);```
To remove object1 from the ordered list, we may write
`list.Withdraw (object1);`
However, the call
`list.Withdraw (object2);`
will fail because object2 is not actually in the list. If for some reason we have lost track of object1, we can always write:
`list.Withdraw (list.Find (object2));`
which first locates the object in the ordered list (object1) which matches object2 and then deletes that object.